Committee of Supply Speech by Dr Amy Khor, Senior Minister of State for Manpower, 07 March 2014, 2:20 PM, Parliament
Dr Amy Khor, Senior Minister of State for Manpower, Parliament
- I thank members who spoke passionately about the need to ensure that our workforce remains responsive, relevant, and resilient.
- Acting Minister Tan Chuan-Jin mentioned the need to support the restructuring of our economy by promoting improvements in the quality of our workforce. I would like to elaborate on how my ministry intends to do so. The main thrust of our efforts is to empower Singaporeans to embrace learning for life to meet the challenges of our collective future.
- We cannot assume that what we know or do today will continue to be relevant. The future will bring new opportunities for all Singaporeans – many new jobs have yet to be created. A number of these jobs will be in new growth sectors that Ms Foo Mee Har, Ms Denise Phua, and Ms Jessica Tan alluded to earlier. We need to prepare ourselves to take advantage of these opportunities.
- I will first give an update on the broad-based measures that my ministry has undertaken to improve our Continuing Education and Training system, or CET for short. These measures seek to better support our economic restructuring efforts and help our workforce seize the opportunities that restructuring will bring. I will then speak on our targeted efforts to reach out to two groups of workers who have more specific needs. Finally, I will speak about the issue of retirement adequacy.
CET remains the cornerstone of a resilient workforce
- Last year, as part of Our Singapore Conversation, MOM organised several sessions to hear what Singaporeans had to say about CET.
- As one participant said, "Learning is living; when we stop learning, we stop living. Lifelong learning is about how you create value for yourself."
- Our government recognises that CET remains the cornerstone of a resilient workforce, and will continue to empower Singaporeans to improve themselves.
- The story of Mr Jai Prakash illustrates this well.
- Mr Prakash, aged 47, sought assistance from WDA's Career Centre at North West CDC after being retrenched as a Distribution & Marketing Manager. He was keen to hone his skills as a trainer to widen his job options.
- After understanding his needs, Mr Prakash's Career Consultant referred him for the Advanced Certificate in Training and Assessment (ACTA) course where he completed all six modules during a five-month period last year. On top of substantial course fee subsidies, he also received a training allowance.
- His perseverance paid off when he secured a job through his own initiative as an Assistant Operations Manager with a logistics company in Dec last year, after being unemployed for eight months. He was able to apply his newly-minted skills gained from the ACTA course in his new role to train new staff in handling chemical products and managing inventories.
- Mr Prakash is currently pursuing the Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications (WSQ) Advanced Certificate in Workplace Safety & Health conducted by NTUC Learning Hub, to further develop his skill sets.
Progress made since the 2008 CET Masterplan
- At the Budget Debate, several members, including Mr Zainudin Nordin, had asked about the progress we have made in CET.
- Back in 2008, we launched the Masterplan to develop CET into a key economic and social institution that undergirds our economy, our competitiveness and helps Singaporeans stay employable.
- Since then, we have more than doubled the number of CET centres from 19 to 51, and increased the coverage of WSQ frameworks to cover more than 30 industries, from Creative Industries to Precision Engineering.
- A total of one million workers have now been trained in WSQ. And with our two new CET campuses, more workers will be able to access CET programmes.
- In addition, our polytechnics and ITEs have quadrupled their academic CET programmes from about 40 in 2008 to over 160 programmes in 2013. Since 2011, these programmes have also been modularised to better meet the needs of working adults for flexible upgrading.
- We also look at outcomes from the perspective of our workers and employers.
- WDA's latest survey1 findings are encouraging. 97% of our trainees indicated that they were better able to apply their skills, an increase from 93% in 2009 when the survey first started. 77% of employers felt that WSQ training led to productivity improvements, compared to 62% in 2009.
- Mr Christopher De Souza had earlier asked about productivity and training for lower-wage workers, and I am very pleased to share that our lower-wage workers, in particular, have benefitted from WSQ training. Based on another WDA study2, from 2008 to 2010, lower-wage workers with WSQ Statements of Attainment received wage increments of between 2.6% and 4.6% compared to those without SOAs.
- The progress we have made since 2008 has allowed us to fulfil the aspirations of more Singaporeans, such as Mr Low Weng Hoe.
- Mr Low graduated with a Degree in Network Computing and joined the IT industry as an IT executive, but subsequently decided to pursue a career in healthcare.
- During a course for therapy assistants, Mr Low worked closely with therapists in the hospitals who dealt with neurological and geriatric patients. It was then that he discovered a passion for geriatric therapy. He enjoyed interacting with the elderly while assisting them in their exercises and felt a sense of fulfilment when he witnessed their recovery.
- In 2010, he won the WDA-Professional Conversion Programme award to do a three-year Diploma course in Physiotherapy. Although Mr Low is currently earning a salary which is 10% lower than his previous job in the IT industry, he has no regrets entering the healthcare sector.
Supporting our SMEs’ training efforts
- We are also providing more support for our SMEs' training efforts. This contributes to the government’s efforts to transform the SME sector, as DPM Tharman spoke about earlier in the Budget Debate.
- At last year's COS, I introduced the Enterprise Training Support, or ETS, scheme to provide a holistic HR and training package for companies to develop their employees and raise productivity. WDA rolled it out after we listened carefully to our SMEs, many of whom have asked for more help to develop their HR expertise.
- By the end of last year, the ETS had benefitted 68 companies and approximately 12,000 local workers. 70% of these companies were SMEs, and I am glad to share that feedback from SMEs has been very positive.
- Nonetheless, many SMEs also gave feedback that the tight labour market made it difficult to send workers for training. WDA will thus enhance the ETS to support e-learning and mobile learning from 1 April this year. This will provide more flexible training options for workers and, as Ms Denise Phua mentioned, reflect learning in a digital age.
- Several SMEs have also told us that they found it difficult to access WDA’s schemes and training programmes. Hence, since last year, through closer collaborations with the one-stop SME Centres set up by SPRING Singapore, SMEs that prefer one-to-one advice on training advisory or manpower development can approach WDA Programme Advisors at any of these five SME centres3.
- Response from SMEs has been positive. Of the SMEs that approached the Programme Advisors, 40% eventually expressed an interest to tap on the schemes. In fact, the majority of SMEs engaged in this manner are small enterprises with less than 20 employees.
- I urge more SMEs to tap on these services. A mindset of continuous improvement does not apply only to workers; employers are important conduits for these improvements to take place.
Laying the ground for further improvements to our CET landscape
- At the start of my speech, I spoke briefly about the challenges of the future. CET is a key strategy in our response to these challenges. And we must actively look and plan ahead so that our CET system keeps our workforce agile in an evolving world fuelled by uncertainty.
- Hence, as we announced last year, we are embarking on a major review of our CET Masterplan. Given the future challenges faced by our workforce, the review of the CET Masterplan will help to achieve these:
- First, to build a culture where individuals are better empowered to pursue their career goals and aspirations through CET. We will give greater emphasis to self-initiated upgrading to build a "career-resilient" workforce that embraces lifelong learning.
- Second, companies need to take greater ownership of their HR planning. They can do this by more effectively integrating CET into their business strategy and performance management, developing attractive careers and wage pathways.
- Third, at a systems level, we want to improve the responsiveness of our CET system, to meet the evolving skills needs of growth sectors.
- More details on the revised CET Masterplan will be announced in due course.
Targeted Measures for PMEs and Older Workers
- Allow me now to turn our attention to two specific groups of workers: namely the PMEs and our older workers.
Professionals, Managers, and Executives (PMEs)
- I thank Mr Patrick Tay, Ms Foo Mee Har, Ms Mary Liew, and Mr Teo Siong Seng, for their concerns about our PMEs. Let me set this issue in context. On the whole, our PMEs are doing well. For example, unemployment rates for Singapore citizen PMEs remain low at 2.5% in 2013, compared to 3.6% for all citizens4. However, some PMEs are facing employment challenges, as alluded to by some of our Members of Parliament.
- On average, unemployed PMEs took longer to find jobs. The median duration of unemployment among those previously in PME jobs was 13 weeks in June 2013, compared to eight weeks for those from non-PME jobs5.
- While our unemployment rate is currently low, we cannot be complacent and expect it to remain that way. The number of PMEs in the labour market is also increasing. As the educational and skills profile of our workforce improves, the share of PMEs in the Singapore citizen workforce has risen from 25% in 2003, to 28% in 20136. And this number is expected to grow further.
- Our efforts to provide broad support for PMEs to improve themselves must therefore be redoubled to help more to take on the jobs that have been created.
- WDA provides funding for training beyond WSQ and continually reviews this to expand the range of PME programmes funded.
- Our PMEs also benefit from Place and Train programmes funded by WDA. One such pilot programme that we fund, working with the Association of Small and Medium Enterprises (ASME), is the Max Talent programme, which is open to all SMEs regardless of industry or sector. Mr Teo Siong Seng will be glad to note that a total of 740 PMEs have been placed across 706 SMEs under the Max Talent programme, from its inception in Apr 2012 to 31 Dec 2013.
- Ms Foo Mee Har pointed out that some PMEs need help to gain overseas exposure. She spoke about the Asian Business Fellowship (ABF) programme which she had supported during her stint at Standard Chartered. I am pleased to inform Ms Foo that the ABF has evolved into a "Market Attachments" component under IE Singapore’s Global Company Partnership (GCP) Programme. In fact, DPM announced in this year’s Budget Speech that "Market Attachments" will be enhanced, expanding the scope of support for staff attachments in overseas markets.
Helping Displaced PMEs Get Back On Their Feet
- For displaced PMEs, we will continue to help them get back into employment quickly.
- CaliberLink empowers our PMEs with greater ownership of their CET journeys by providing more platforms for self-mastery, exploration, and enrichment. Since its launch in Dec 2011, CaliberLink has assisted more than 5,000 PMEs through its training and career consultation services, networking events and workshops. Of these, about 2,000 sought dedicated employment assistance in the form of career coaching services, and 750 have since found employment. Although CaliberLink is relatively new, these figures are encouraging.
- Our career consultants are critical to ensuring that workers receive personalised advice that best suits their needs and aspirations.
- Take Mr Glenn Au, for example. Mr Au was 51 years old when he approached CaliberLink in May 2013 when his position as a Senior Specialist in Human Resource at an MNC was made redundant in a restructuring exercise.
- Apprehensive about the job market's negative perception towards older workers, Mr Au wanted to explore job opportunities in other sectors and other job functions. He also felt that his degree in Engineering may hinder him from finding a job in HR.
- The career coach from CaliberLink, Mr Mohamed Alfee, advised Mr Au that his previous work experience in HR was relevant and that he should continue applying for jobs in HR. Through Mr Alfee’s guidance, Mr Au overcame his self-perceived “mature age” barrier to employment by continuing to apply for jobs in Human Resource, working closely with the coach to redraft his resume to highlight his transferrable skills, as well as HR and Training experience.
- Through CaliberLink's support, I am glad to note that he finally secured a job as a senior Human Resource Manager in SMRT Corporation and enjoys a higher salary compared to his previous job.
- I am told that he now even shares his job search journey with other job seekers at workshops organised by CaliberLink!
- We will help displaced PMEs like Mr Au get back on their feet as quickly as possible, so that they can continue to support themselves and their families.
Addressing the Needs and Aspirations of PMEs
- Mr Patrick Tay and Ms Mary Liew spoke about the need for multiple skill sets for our PMEs, with Mr Tay further suggesting a PME Capability Development Fund. Over the years, our approach to helping PMEs develop their skills has evolved with the changing needs of the economy.
- In light of the rapidly changing environment, deep expertise in one area may no longer be sufficient, as Mr Tay had noted. PMEs may require different skills and competencies from what they have today, and we will help them acquire these necessary skills through CET.
- As Mr Patrick Tay suggested, one way to do so is to help PMEs develop deep vertical expertise in two or even more areas, and strong transferable skills which are relevant across industries – moving from developing T-shaped to pi-shaped workers. We are in principle supportive of this idea. In our review of the CET Masterplan, we will also be looking at funding support for training these PMEs.
- Mr Patrick Tay also raised his concern about graduates from private education institutions. As he pointed out, strong career aspirations have led to a greater demand for academic upgrading, especially for degrees. Adding on, Ms Mary Liew and Mr Tay both spoke about affordability.
- While we will continue to create quality jobs for Singaporeans, we also need to ensure that our educational institutions produce graduates who are highly employable, with strong substantive knowledge and relevant skills. For the private education sector, the Government will continue to maintain standards through a holistic approach that integrates regulation and quality assurance, and consumer education.
- Students also need to take greater ownership of their own careers, and be discerning in their choice of institutions and courses. Prospective students should do their homework to find out about the employment outcomes of graduates of the education provider. Cost should also factor into their calculation.
- Education should never be a paper chase. Increasingly, employers are seeking to recruit employees with relevant competencies and skills, regardless of the qualifications they hold.
- Now allow me to move on to Older Workers. Several Members, including Mr Heng Chee How, Mr Seng Han Thong, Mr David Ong, Mr Zainudin Nordin, and Mr Gerald Giam have raised their concerns.
- Our basic principle is this: We want to help Singaporeans who desire to work to be able to do so. We will continue to improve job opportunities for them and help them develop the necessary skills to access those opportunities.
- At last year's COS, I announced the WorkPro programme to provide comprehensive support to encourage older workers and economically inactive locals to return to work, and to promote work-life harmony. I thank Mr Heng Chee How for his concern about its progress. The take-up rate has been encouraging, with more than 700 companies coming on board as at Dec 2013, nine months after the programme was launched.
- Another aspect of WorkPro is aimed at promoting flexible work arrangements. SPS Hawazi will elaborate more on the Work-Life Grant in his speech.
- We are doing more for our older workers. With increasing life expectancy, many Singaporeans are capable of, and desire to continue to work till an older age. I fully agree with Mr Seng Han Thong that we should help them to do so. This allows them to remain meaningfully engaged, to continue to earn an income and to be better prepared for their retirement. Just as importantly, working also sustains a sense of dignity and self-worth. So, it is not just about working longer for retirement adequacy.
- The employment rate of older residents aged 55 to 64 reached 65% in 20137, a target we attained two years ahead of time. Few countries have achieved these levels, so we will monitor the trends going forward and see if it is indeed realistic to push for an even higher target. But we will not let up on the current momentum and we will continue to help those who want to work to do so.
Tripartite Committee on Employability of Older Workers
- Mr Seng Han Thong will be pleased to note that we have reconvened our Tripartite Committee on Employability of Older Workers.
- Our efforts to help older workers can be grouped into five broad thrusts:
• Improving workplace practices and support;
• Raising productivity and skills of older workers;
• Shaping positive perceptions of older workers;
• Enhancing employment facilitation, and
• Improving retirement planning.
- Through our outreach to companies, we recognise that different sectors such as hotels, retail, and F&B have unique needs and constraints. As Mr Heng Chee How has pointed out, some businesses may not know how to go about redesigning their workplace processes to cater to their older workers.
- Hence, the Tricom will work with industry associations to build companies’ capabilities in managing an ageing workforce and roll out relevant age management practices. We will also work with industry partners to develop a training curriculum and standards for age management consultants, who can then help businesses implement age-friendly programmes.
- Mr Heng Chee How also asked for an update on our plans for re-employment. Since we implemented the re-employment legislation in 2012, progress has been smooth. Based on the preliminary findings from our latest survey, 99% of private sector local employees who turned 62 in the year ending June last year were offered re-employment, including 67% of retiring employees who were offered re-employment on existing contracts, with no change to their employment terms.
- Mr David Ong raised a related issue of wage adjustments upon re-employment. I would like to re-iterate that any adjustments to the employment terms for re-employed employees should be based on reasonable factors such as employee’s productivity, duties and responsibilities, and the extent of seniority elements in the wage structure. So far, statistics have been encouraging. Among those re-employed in the same job in the private sector, 96% did not experience a basic wage cut.
- Overall, employers are keen to tap on older workers’ skills, knowledge and experience.
- The positive results of re-employment have affirmed that this approach works for us. We considered various options, including extending the statutory minimum retirement age. But we have decided to adopt the re-employment approach as it allows workers to work longer, while ensuring that employers have sufficient flexibility to manage their manpower needs.
- We are looking into further raising the re-employment age from 65 years old, possibly to 67. As the Retirement and Re-employment Act (RRA) has been in effect for only two years, the Tricom, in consultation with employers and unions, feels that we should allow time to monitor its impact. At the same time, the Tricom will review and iron out any outstanding implementation issues and update the law and the Tripartite Guidelines on the Re-employment of Older Employees.
- We will announce the proposals, including the appropriate time frame for raising the re-employment age, when these are ready.
- We should also not rely only on legislation to support the employment of older workers. Mr David Ong rightly pointed out that addressing age discrimination is an ongoing journey which requires a mindset change by all members of society – employers, employees, supervisors, and so on. To that end, the Tricom will be launching an initiative to shape positive perceptions of older workers, to highlight the value they bring and to encourage companies to tap on their experience and skills.
- Finally, I would like to cover the important topic of retirement adequacy for Singaporeans.
Announced Increases to CPF Contribution Rates
- The CPF contribution rate changes announced at Budget 2014 were made in close consultation with our tripartite partners. In deciding on the quantum and the pace of the increases, we were mindful of the need to strike a balance between providing for better retirement adequacy, and making sure that we do not raise wage costs to an extent where it affects the employability of our workers and our businesses lose their competitive edge.
- I thank Mr David Ong for his concern about the adequacy of retirement and healthcare savings for our older workers, and for his suggestion that employers could contribute even more to the retirement savings of their employees.
- Raising employer CPF contribution rates further is one way to help provide better adequacy, but it will have an impact on business costs and thus employment opportunities. I think we have heard both sides of the issue during the Budget Debate. Any further increases in our employer CPF contribution rates will have to be carefully considered by the tripartite partners, and if deemed necessary, done in a calibrated and gradual manner.
- More importantly, we have to keep at our efforts to improve the employability of our older workers. The Government supports the employment of older workers heavily, especially the older low-wage workers, through schemes like the Workfare Income Supplement (WIS) and the Special Employment Credit (SEC).
The CPF Minimum Sum
- Mr Seng Han Thong spoke about the increase in the Minimum Sum (MS) and asked if the government will conduct a review on the long term MS policy.
- The MS aims to provide enough for the basic retirement needs of Singaporeans. What is basic? If you have the full MS in cash at 55 today, you should be able to cover the expenditure needs of a two-member retiree household in the second quintile (in other words, between the 20th percentile and 40th percentile of households).
- We tried to keep the MS increases as gradual as possible to minimise the impact on each successive cohort. We have no plans to revise the MS further in real terms in the near future (after the MS target has been reached in 2015). However, in nominal terms the MS will still have to be adjusted to account for inflation and ensure that the real value of the MS in 2003 dollars is preserved. I would also like to assure Mr Seng that we will continue to review whether the MS is sufficient to support basic needs and will take his suggestions into consideration. Mr Seng had earlier said that “one size does not fit all, so one sum does not fit all”. However, the fact is that this is a Minimum Sum, so it is one sum that is required by all.
- Ms Jessica Tan asked if the age at which the Retirement Account is created to set aside the MS could be reviewed as Singaporeans work longer and retire later.
- There are several reasons why a Retirement Account is created and the MS amount set aside at age 55. First, it helps members grow their savings more quickly in the final years prior to the draw down age as the Retirement Account pays a higher rate of return than the Ordinary Account. Second, the setting aside of the MS is linked to several other schemes which also take place at age 55. For example, members are allowed to withdraw $5,000 or any savings in excess of the MS and Medisave Minimum Sum at age 55. The rest is transferred into the RA where the rules governing withdrawals are necessarily stricter to safeguard them for retirement needs.
- We empathise with situations of lower income older Singaporeans who face difficulty paying the mortgages for a basic HDB flat. But rather than delay the creation of RA at age 55, we take a targeted approach. We evaluate the financial situation of such appellants and where warranted, we will allow them to use savings in their RA that originated from the OA for their housing needs.
The CPF is Fundamentally for Long-Term Retirement Needs
- Mr Seng suggested having a lower MS for lower income members so more members have access to their CPF savings for housing or other withdrawals after the age of 55. More generally, several members of the house have also previously petitioned for the CPF to be more flexible in allowing access to CPF savings. This echoes Dr Intan’s call for flexibility in the repayment of CPF savings withdrawn for housing.
- While I understand that many look forward to withdrawing their CPF monies when they turn 55, this is not the primary purpose of the CPF. The CPF is fundamentally for long-term retirement needs. With rising life expectancy and more members staying single, as Ms Jessica Tan had pointed out, we should in fact be looking at putting aside more savings. The CPF is our nest egg for retirement, and not a golden goose to be slain upon reaching 55. By and large we must uphold the principle that the design of the CPF system should be tilted towards meeting longer-term needs.
- Hence, restrictions are placed on the use of CPF savings for other purposes. This includes the use of CPF savings for housing. However, we do allow for flexibility today where the case merits.
- In particular, Dr Intan asked if we can be more flexible in requiring the repayment of CPF savings, in the case where a member buys his own HDB flat and has to withdraw as a co-owner of his parents’ flat.
- Under the CPF Act, any withdrawals of CPF savings for housing must be secured against a charge on the property, and refunded to the member’s CPF account when he gives up ownership of the property. This safeguards his CPF savings for future housing and retirement needs. In fact, we do not require the refund of CPF if the CPF member continues to retain ownership of the first property. For instance, if he buys a private property as a second property.
- In the case of HDB flats, one family is allowed to own only one HDB flat at any one time, so that more families can access public housing. HDB requires a person to relinquish ownership of the first flat within six months upon taking possession of his new flat. This then triggers the refund of CPF taken to purchase the first flat. Today, CPF members who have difficulties repaying in a lump sum may opt to make progressive payments to bring down the total refund amount until the new flat is ready, which may be in two to three years’ time. Alternatively, households can obtain a loan from HDB or the banks secured against the property, or make a transfer of CPF funds from the eligible accounts of other co-owners of the flat to effect the refund.
- We empathise with the difficulties some families might face and are currently jointly reviewing with MND if further flexibility can be provided, without unduly compromising members’ retirement needs.
- On the issue of CPF nomination highlighted by Ms Lee Li Lian, when a CPF member passes away without making a nomination, his CPF monies will be distributed to his immediate family by the Public Trustee according to intestacy laws. This safeguards the welfare of his immediate family members. The CPF Board’s nomination scheme provides CPF members with an option to nominate other recipients of their CPF monies upon their demise, and how much each nominee should receive. Our view is that it is best left to members to decide if they wish to make a nomination depending on their circumstances.
- Once a nomination is made, the Board is legally bound to abide by the member's nomination except upon marriage, when the nomination is actually nullified. In particular, in response to Ms Lee Li Lian’s query, the treatment of CPF nominations is generally in line with the treatment of wills. Nominations are not nullified in the case of divorce as we consider that the member may still intend to provide for his ex-spouse and/or children.
- Ms Lee Li Lian said that this causes confusion, and she asked that more awareness be generated on this issue. We will take her point about generating awareness. But, I would like to also note that it is stated in the first two lines in the generation information section of the CPF nomination form, that a marriage will automatically revoke the existing nomination, and a divorce does not revoke an existing nomination. We provide comprehensive information on CPF Board’s website, and members can also call CPF Board hotline, or visit the service centre to find out more. In fact, we also advise CPF members who wish to do a nomination to do it at our customer service centre, where they can clarify any questions that they may have with the customer service executives. The customer service executives will also inform them about the implications of the CPF nomination.
- Allow me now to conclude. Through our CET and CPF system, and what we do to support the employment of PMEs and older workers, we aim to encourage and facilitate Singaporeans to take charge of their learning, employability and retirement needs. And we will actively intervene to provide additional assistance to segments of the population that require more help.
- At the start of my speech, I quoted one of our OSC participants, who said: "Lifelong learning is about how you create value for yourself." Indeed, as a government, we want to empower all Singaporeans to create value for themselves throughout their lives.
- This culture of constant and continuous improvement will help us be more responsive, relevant, and resilient. It will enable us to weather future storms and seize the opportunities that come our way, to earn a better wage, in a better job, for a better life. Thank you.
WDA’s 2013 WSQ Outcomes Evaluation Survey.
WDA longitudinal study on the impact of WSQ training on wages.
The 5 SME centres are the SME Centre@ASME (Association of Small and Medium Enterprises), SME Centre@SMF (Singapore Manufacturing Federation), SME Centre@SICCI (Singapore Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry), SME Centre@SMCCI (Singapore Malay Chamber of Commerce and Industry), and SME Centre@SCCCI (Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry).
Comprehensive Labour Force Survey, MOM. The figure of 3.6% refers to the SC unemployment rate excluding unemployed citizens without work experience.
Comprehensive Labour Force Survey, MOM.
Comprehensive Labour Force Survey, MOM.
Comprehensive Labour Force Survey, MOM.